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## COSTING BASIC FORMULAS & COST VOLUME PROFIT (CVP) FORMULAS

Cost of Goods Manufactured and Sold Statement Formulas:

v Prime Cost = Direct Materials Cost + Direct Labor Cost

v Total Factory Cost or Manufacturing Cost = Direct Materials + Direct Labor Cost + Factory Overhead

v Conversion Cost = Direct Labor Cost + Factory Overhead Cost

v Cost of Goods Manufactured (COGM) = Total Factory Cost + Opening Work in Process Inventory – Ending Work in Process Inventory
Or
Cost of Goods manufactured = Direct materials cost + Direct labor cost + Factory overhead cost + Opening work in process inventory – Ending work in process inventory

v Cost of goods sold (COGS) = Cost of goods manufactured + Opening finished goods inventory – Ending finished goods inventory
Or
Cost of goods sold = Direct materials cost + Direct labor cost + Factory overhead cost + Opening work in process inventory – Ending work in process inventory + Opening finished goods inventory – Ending finished goods inventory

v Number of units manufactured = Units sold + Ending Finished Goods units – Opening finished goods units

v Per unit cost of goods manufactured = Cost of goods manufactured / Units manufactured

v Materials used or consumed = Opening inventory or materials + Net purchases of materials – Ending inventory of materials

Income statement formulas:

v Gross profit = Net sales – Cost of goods sold

v Operating profit = Gross profit – Operating expenses

v Operating or commercial expenses = Selling or marketing expenses + General or administrative expenses

v Per unit gross profit = Gross profit / No. of units sold

v Per unit net profit = Net profit / No. of units sold

v Percentage of GP to sales = (Gross profit / Net sales) × 100

v Percentage of net profit to sales = (Net profit / Net sales) × 100

# Cost Volume Profit (CVP) Formulas:

v Contribution margin = Sales – Variable expenses (manufacturing and non-manufacturing)

v Net operating income = Contribution margin – Fixed expenses (manufacturing and non manufacturing)

v Contribution margin ratio = Contribution margin / Sales

v Break even point (units) = Fixed expenses / Unit contribution margin

v Break even point (dollar sales) = Fixed expenses / CM ratio

v Units sales to attain target profit = (Fixed expenses + Target profit) / Unit contribution margin

v Sales to attain target profit = (Fixed expenses + Target profit) / Contribution margin ratio

v Margin of safety = Total budgeted or actual sales – Break even sales

v Margin of safety percentage or margin of safety ratio = Margin of safety / Total budgeted or actual sales

v Degree of operating leverage = Contribution margin / Net operating income

## FINANCIAL RATIOS WITH FORMULAS

FINANCIAL RATIOS WITH FORMULAS

General profitability:

• Gross profit ratio = (Gross profit / Net sales) × 100
• Operating ratio = (Operating cost / Net sales) × 100
• Expense ratio = (Particular expense / Net sales) × 100
• Operating profit ratio = (Operating profit / Net sales) × 100

Overall profitability:

• Return on shareholders’ investment or net worth = Net profit after interest and tax / Shareholders’ funds
• Return on equity capital = (Net profit after tax Preference dividend) / Paid up equity capital
• Earnings per share (EPS) ratio = (Net profit after tax Preference dividend) / Number of equity shares
• Return on gross capital employed = (Adjusted net profit / Gross capital employed) × 100
• Return on net capital employed = (Adjusted net profit / Net capital employed) × 100
• Dividend yield ratio = Dividend per share / Market value per share
• Dividend payout ratio or pay-out ratio = Dividend per equity share / Earnings per share

Short Term Financial Position or Test of Solvency:

• Current ratio = Current assets / Current liabilities
• Quick or acid test of liquid ratio (for immediate solvency) = Liquid assets / Current liabilities
• Absolute liquid ratio = Absolute liquid assets / Current liabilities

Current Assets Movement, Efficiency or Activity Ratios:

• Inventory / Stock turnover ratio = Cost of goods sold / Average inventory at cost
• Debtors of receivables turnover ratios = Net credit sales / Average trade debtors
• Average collection period = (Trade debtors No. of working days) / Net credit sales
• Creditors or payables turnover ratio = Net credit purchase / Average trade creditors
• Average payment period = (Trade creditors No. of working days) / Net credit purchase
• Working capital turnover ratio = Cost of sales / Net working capital

Analysis of Long Term Solvency:

• Debt to equity ratio = Outsiders funds / Shareholders funds or External funds / Internal funds
• Ratio of long term debt to shareholders funds (Debt equity) = Long term debt / Shareholders funds
• Proprietary of equity ratio = Shareholders funds / Total assets
• Fixed assets to net worth = Fixed assets after depreciation / Shareholders’ funds
• Fixed assets ratio or fixed assets to long term funds = Fixed assets after depreciation / Total long term funds
• Ratio of current assets proprietors’ funds = Current assets / Shareholders’ funds
• Debt service or interest coverage ratio = Net profit before interest and tax / Fixed interest charges
• Capital gearing ratio = Equity share capital / Fixed interest bearing funds

## GOOGLE DOCUMENTS – EXCEL WITH FORMS

Google having documents, see docs.google.com, which is free to use and more flexible.

Through google documents, you can add data from anywhere and get all data in single file. Just think, if you have sales representatives through out the country and they will use their mobile phone or laptop to update daily collection, sales and customer feedback. How it is more useful to you to get a summarized report from the data at a same time once they entered. Fabulous. Once it is strutured correctly and securely, then activity analysis is very easy and costwise so cheap for a company. Even a small distributor below Rupees 10 lakhs turnover and having network of sales and distribution in more than two places , can use it without any additional cost for software.

I hereby given you the excel with forms – to create feedback through sales representative for proper distribution

1. First select – create new form

2. A separate window will open

3. Just add the following text / option box

a. Name of the customer

b. Invoice No

c. Date of receipt of goods

d. Whether reached before agreed delivery period

e. How is the service rate it

Once it is created, save it (it will save automatically in regular interval). The backend of the data will be stored in excel format.

The data can be entered by various people. For that you have to get the link of the webpage having this form and show it in your webpage. Once entry made, it will be stored in google excel.

It is quite useful.

See the final output form, in which the user has to enter details

Even you can email the form to the persons to whom you want reply. You can authorize the person email ids . This is helpful for security of your mishandling of the form.

In the excel you can fetch data and can analyse the same. We can also download the same in your computer as excel file.

I have given the short brief for the understand basically. Hope you enjoyed and liked it. Kindly send your suggestions to vinodkumar2001

Vinothkumar.G

## EXCEL2007 – HOW TO CREATE PIVOT TABLE

EXCEL2007 – HOW TO CREATE PIVOT TABLE

For describe the pivot table , I have given sample data. Just go through first

 DISTRICT SALES REP NAME SALES 200 VIJAY 8805 201 RAVI 7226 202 ANAND 5268 203 ANAND 2884 203 SUJHAI 6056 203 KUMAR 3386 201 RAMESH 6980 201 ASHOK 3635 200 RAMESH 9878 202 SUJHAI 8482 203 VIJAY 3805 204 RAVI 4345 205 KUMAR 6430 206 SURESH 2980 210 ANAND 3215 210 SURESH 2458 209 ANAND 7471 208 RAMESH 3958 207 KUMAR 3280 206 SUJHAI 2850

While go through you found there are three columns namely DISTRICT, SALES REP NAME, SALES.

To find out who is making more sale, follow the steps

1. Select the data to analyse from A1:C21

2. Goto Insert menu, select Insert Pivot table

3. It will show a menu

In table range, it showing as Table1 as we already selected the range. We can change the data selection also.

Choose new worksheet, for convenient . You can use existing worksheet also, but you have to give the cell reference.

4. Then the screen shows

Just drag Sales Rep Name into Row labels and Sales into Values

Now, see the data are sorted and summed in the sheet. It gives data in meaningful way very beautifully.

See, if you want to check in which State having more sales, Then remove sales rep name and insert District into the Row labels.

Even, we can do, Districtwise, Sales rep wise as follows

If you drag the District into column labels, then it shows beautifully

This is very simple to use.

Hope it is useful to you. I will post more in coming days. I suggest you to give comments on this article along with your requirements and suggestions to develop into good article.

Please email at vinodkumar2001 if you free.

Thanks

Vinothkumar

## BANK STOCKS SEEMS ATTRACTIVE

BANK STOCKS SEEMS ATTRACTIVE

DATED 05.03.2011

The Price Earnings ratio of all major banks in NSE

AXIS BANK 17

HDFC BANK 31

KOTAK MAHINDRA BANK 44

PUNJAB NATIONAL BANK 9

BANK OF BARODA 9

BANK OF INDIA 11

CANARA BANK 8

INDIAN OVERSEAS BANK 10

INDUS DEVELOP BANK 10

SYNDICATE BANK 8

UNION BANK OF INDIA 9

YES BANK 16

(Courtesy : Economic Times dt 05.03.2011)

In current market scenario, price earings ratio for some specific banks seems to be attractive.

In given list, PNB,Bank of baroda, Bank of india, Syndicate bank, Union bank of india are having less P/E of 9 and below. Normally financial institutions have stability in business and somehow secured. Investing in banking sector shares will give return in longrun. So, who are interested in longterm investment can opt for banking sector shares. Especially Syndicate bank seems to be more attractive in banking sector shares. Its price is Rs.124.20 per share as on 04.03.2011. So, investors make invest small amount in this share.

Please be more careful about time and amount while investing in share as they are more precious in share trading / investment.

.

## 2011 CALENDER

Dear Friends,

2011 Calender for your desktop and table. Just print it and hold on your screen / board / wall

Vinoth

2011-one.pdf

2011.pdf

## NEW ARTICLE – SHAREMARKET SUGGESTIONS & VIEWS

Hello Friends,

I like to write about sharemarket suggestions & views. It will be specific in share recommendations. I will anaylise a company profile and will suggest you to buy shares in coming days. But, share market investment is subject to market risk as all people informing. So, keep going and get benefit on your own analysis.

I am buying shares based on analysis and my priority list as below. Then to be watched shares are may be MIDCAP or SmallCAP but with good records. I will share about the shares in coming days

 TOP PRIORITY 1 RIL 2 PANTALOON RETAIL 3 IVRCL 4 YES BANK 5 HANUNG TOYS 6 EVEREST KANTO 7 ITC 8 KS OILS 9 THOMAS COOK 10 Sancia Global Infraprojects TO BE WATCHED 1 Trend Electronics 2 Videocon Ind 3 speciality papers 4 O K Play India Ltd. 5 Dhandapani Finance Ltd 6 Mount Everest Trading & Investment Limited 7 Time Technoplast – mf investment good return expected 8 SpiceJet 9 Resonance Speci 10 Artson Eng -short term – Rs.,90/- 11 AccelFrontline 12 Mazda Ltd – TO BE ANALYSED – GOOD RETURNS CORRECTLY 13 Gremach Infrastructure Equipments and Projects 14 Jai Corporation 15 Facor Alloys 16 s a petrochem – 17 JAYASWALS NECO.- NAE.N 18 Crompton Greaves Ltd. 19 Secunbad Health 20 RAJESH EXPORTS 21 INDUSIND BANK 22 ACCEL TRANSMATICS 23 Paramount Comm- 6 -8 months – Rs.400 (Max) 24 Gupta Synthetic 25 TELE DATA 26 GITANJALI GEMS 27 Neuland Lab 28 Hotel leela venture 29 Zodiac Clothing 30 Kalindee Rail 31 Sanghvi Movers 31 Premier Energy and Infrastructure 33 Ponni sugars

The working atmosphere is quite different from individual prospective. Many companies are very restrictive in utilizing the skills of employee. Only human being can think, innovate and enjoy. But, a workplace is not for all these things. A person who is work for the company should work around the clock without any thing, without any innovative ideas and not suppose to enjoy the work.

If you try any one thing, Say if you start to enjoy the work, the people around you cant tolerate it. Though they are working along with you, it is not affordable by them. Even sometimes, work are routine. You cant even think about anything in the time of work. You cant think of your career, your desired profile, current profile, positive thoughts. Yes, even positive thoughts about work itself not fruitful for some persons. If a person becomes a leader in a office, he thinks his subordinates are not so worthy and should not think much. They think that they have to lead the path with their commands in the group. There is no smooth relationship framed by them. They normally like to be lonely and work as a watchdog. They are not ready to give smooth atmosphere with good thinking, innovative ways and small enjoyments. Even small enjoyments and celebrations make things smoother. Say for example complete a job within the timelimit (dont say that its his duty) though it is his duty give a small pen as a reward and cut a cake in the team for celebrating the same will make the group of people happy and definitely the work will be more smoother than existing. It will change the work culture itself.

But, we have no idea why in major offices in India having great people at top with bad things in their mind. If it is a family, beyond some limits the persons enjoying differently in their ways. Housewife grouped into neighbors, children will combined with the neighbors children and their school /college friends. But only in office the people with different age structure unites for a reason. So, it is a social place like Facebook or Twitter. At least in social networks people with same mindset can share their thoughts. But the office is a place where the majority rules and minority ignored. Normally the people in entry and middle level will be in their beginning of career and they need good people to mentor them and they will take a leader as example for grow in their career. But not all Great people in top/middle level management have good thinking. Its not blame, its quite natural.

But good thing about the youngest generations that they understand the situation easily and they are self learners. But, it is not enough.

Please think and avoid bad things in your mind if you want to be real Great person.

Vinothkumar

24.12.2010